TerraStryke® TPHENHANCED™ Residual Source Mass Remediation

Fire Training Center: Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Naphthalene, BTEX

Former Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois USA

The Site, a fire training ground, is located within a former US Air Force (USAF) facility. Smear zone soils and groundwater were adversely impacted by Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and Petroleum Hydrocarbon (PHC) contaminants. Baseline total organic carbon (TOC) was initially reported at approximately 25 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) in soil, and 7-10 micrograms per liter (μg/L) in groundwater, with additive loading established accordingly.

RESULTS: 12-months post TPHENHANCED™ deployment, native microbials enhanced the solubilization of residual source mass contaminants: a >23-fold increase in total VOC dissolved phase concentrations (from 23.3 ug/L to 556 ug/L at MW-6116). Five months later total VOCs realized ≈ 75% REDUCTION in bioavailable contaminants and >95% REDUCTION additive assimilation. Specifically, VOCs within the TPHENHANCED™ amended groundwater realized:

  • A near 30-fold increase in Benzene followed by >71.8% REDUCTION
  • A secondary 6-fold increase in Benzene followed by >74.2% REDUCTION
  • A near 10-fold increase in total VOCs followed by >71.9% REDUCTION
  • A secondary 9-fold increase in total VOCs followed by >74.7% REDUCTION

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TerraStryke® ERDENHANCED® DNAPL Source Zone Green

Remediation Optics Manufacturing Facility, Lebanon, New Hampshire

Optical manufacturer desired sustainable low-impact groundwater solution. ERDENHANCED™ (2,600 pounds) deployed in 2001 via direct-push technology (26 nodes) into two, silty-clay, laterally continuous, hydraulically conductive source zones; baseline concentration of Trichloroethylene (TCE) ≈97,400 micrograms per liter (μg/L), roughly 9% solubility of TCE, indicating significant residual source mass in saturated soils as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL).

RESULTS: Post 6-month deployment, TCE decreased 86% followed by 4-5 years of enhanced solubilization of residual Parent Perchloroethylene (PCE) DNAPL into dissolved phase, recorded as asymptotic TCE. Concurrent with the period of expedited solubilization was increased cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and Ethene generation, indicating complete biotransformation and >99.9% reduction in PCE by 2010; additionally:

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TerraStryke® TPHENHANCED™ Residual Source Mass Remediation

Using Low-Impact Biostimulation Direct Push Injection Program;

Fuel Oil Distribution Facility, NH

Based on positive results of an on-site Passive Release Sock (PRS) evaluation, TPHENHANCED™ was chosen to biostimulate the degradation of dissolved-phase and residual source mass volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a silty-clay water bearing unit. TPHENHANCED™ is a low-impact remediation strategy that allows uninterrupted site operations.

RESULTS: Baseline VOCTOTAL in treatment zone approached 16,300 ug/L and realized:

  • 70% – 97% REDUCTION in [VOCTOTAL]
  • 70% – 98% REDUCTION in [BTEXTOTAL]
  • 70% – 98% REDUCTION in [Alkylbenzene]

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PRS Deployment Units: Simple Additive Delivery Approach Former Textile

Manufacturing Facility, Hamilton, Ontario Canada

Former textile mill with continuous operations from early 1800’s through 1960’s. Past use of the solvent Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) adversely impacted Site groundwater with PCE. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and
cis-1, 2-Dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) were also documented in 2010 above Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) Table 3 SCS standards..

BASELINE: PoPCE 43,000 μg/Kg (micrograms per kilogram) in saturated soils proximate to MW-9 and the source zone contaminants. TCE and cis-DCE 1.4 μg/Kg and 0.5 μg/Kg, respectively. PCE in groundwater at MW-9 120,000 μg/Liter with TCE and cis-DCE 700 μg/Kg, and 560 μg/Kg, respectively.

RESULTS: ERDENHANCED™ amended groundwater realized:

  • >98% REDUCTION in PCE
  • >95% REDUCTION in TCE
  • >80% REDUCTION in cis-DCE with no rebound and no detectable concentrations of Vinyl chloride (VC)

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TerraStryke® ERDENHANCED™ In-Situ Passive Pilot Study Chlorinated

DNAPL Source Zone Former Dry Cleaner Operations,

Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada

Former dry cleaner operation, current Site use includes dry cleaning store front, retail, offices, and apartments. Past Site use included use/storage of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs); specifically, Tetrachloroethylene (PCE). Past characterization activity documented adverse impacts to subsurface soils and groundwater. Previous remedial efforts proved ineffective and costly. Owner desired a low-cost, low-impact remedial solution that meets compliance and redevelopment objectives.

METHOD: In 2011, the City of Hamilton Ontario sponsored an on-site Pilot Study to evaluate additive efficacy under site biogeochemical conditions. Additive-filled Passive Release Sock (PRS) deployment units were suspended, undisturbed for 6-week periods, in the screened interval of monitoring well MW-9A. PRS units passively amend a limited treatment zone (≤3ft AOI). Five replacement events were completed over a 7-month evaluation period, with baseline and performance groundwater monitoring, sampling, and analytical testing completed during each event. ERDENHANCED™ efficacy determined by comparing performance data to baseline.

RESULTS: Specifically, in total cVOC reductions; after a 275% increase in parent [PCE] due to additive enhanced co-solvent effect, a 76.8%REDUCTION in [cVOCTOTAL] was realized after 8-month evaluation. Additionally, reductions in daughter products include: 76.6% reduction [PCE], 81.8% reduction [TCE], 91.0% reduction [cis-DCE], and 78.8% reduction in [VC]. Furthermore, secondary geochemical metrics recorded during the evaluation provides supportive evidence of amendment enhanced reductive dechlorination.

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TerraStryke® TPHENHANCED™ Cost-Effective, Low-Impact Residual Groundwater

Remediation Petroleum Fuel Oil Release; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Manufacturing facility where after removal of an Underground Storage Tank (UST) and adversely impacted soils, residual PHC source mass was documented as light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). Physical recovery decreased LNAPL thickness from 1.3 feet to 0.18 feet over a 3-year period. The regulatory contaminant drivers included Naphthalene and 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (1,2,4-TMB). TPHENHANCED™ was deployed in 2010 via direct push injection in the vicinity of the former UST excavation. 

RESULTS: Within 6 months after additive deployment, the following results were observed:

  • Concentrations of Naphthalene decreased by approximately 92%
  • Concentrations of 1,2,4-TMB decreased by approximately 83%
  • Naphthalene decreased from 118 ug/L to 8.8 ug/L
  • 1,2,4-TMB decreased from 97.7 ug/L to 17 ug/L

Since deployment of the biostimulation additive TPHENHANCED™ each of the above contaminants of concern and additionally Benzene and other PHC contaminants have remained within regulatory standards.

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