CASE STUDIES

PROVEN RESULTS. LONG-TERM SOLUTIONS.

TerraStryke TPHEnhanced™

Residual Source Mass Remediation Fire Training Center:

Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Naphthalene, BTEX Former Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois USA

BACKGROUND: Former fire training ground located within US Air Force (USAF) facility. Past use resulted in Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and Petroleum Hydrocarbon (PHC) impacted smear zone and groundwater.

RESULTS: 12-months after TPHEnhanced™ deployment additive enhanced microbial populations expedited the solubilization of residual source mass contaminants; realizing a greater-than 23-fold increase in dissolved-phase concentrations VOCs at MW-6116 (23.3 µg/L to 556 µg/L). Five months after reaching peak bioavailability, total VOCs decreased ≈75% and ≈95% additive was apparently assimilated. Specifically, VOC concentrations within TPHEnhanced™ amended groundwater realized:

  • 30-fold increase [Benzene], followed by >71.8% reduction; solubilization, destruction
  • A secondary 6-fold increase in benzene, followed by an additional >74.2% reduction
  • A near 10-fold increase in [total VOCs] followed by >71.9% reduction; and similarly,
  • A secondary 9-fold increase in total VOCs followed by an additional >74.7% reduction

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TerraStryke ERDEnhanced™

DNAPL Source Zone Green Remediation Optics Manufacturing Facility,

Lebanon, New Hampshire

BACKGROUND: Optical manufacturer desired sustainable low-impact groundwater solution. ERDEnhanced™ (2,600 pounds) deployed in 2001 via direct-push technology (26 nodes) into two, silty-clay, laterally continuous, hydraulically conductive source zones; baseline concentration of Trichloroethylene (TCE) ≈97,400 micrograms per liter (μg/L), roughly 9% solubility of TCE, indicating significant residual source mass in saturated soils as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL).

RESULTS: Post 6-month deployment, TCE decreased 86% followed by 4-5 years of enhanced solubilization of residual Parent Perchloroethylene (PCE) DNAPL into dissolved phase, recorded as asymptotic TCE. Concurrent with the period of expedited solubilization was increased cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and Ethene generation, indicating complete biotransformation and >99.9% reduction in PCE by 2010; additionally:

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bioremediation results case studies

TerraStryke TPHEnhanced™

Residual Source Mass Remediation Using Low-Impact Biostimulation

Direct Push Injection Program; Fuel Oil Distribution Facility, NH

BACKGROUND: Based on positive results of an on-site Passive Release Sock (PRS) evaluation, TPHEnhanced™ was chosen to biostimulate the degradation of dissolved-phase and residual source mass volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a silty-clay water bearing unit. TPHEnhanced™ is a low-impact remediation strategy that allows uninterrupted site operations.

RESULTS: Baseline VOCTOTAL in treatment zone approached 16,300 ug/L and realized:

  • 70% – 97% REDUCTION in [VOCTOTAL]
  • 70% – 98% REDUCTION in [BTEXTOTAL]
  • 70% – 98% REDUCTION in [Alkylbenzene]

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TerraStryke ERDEnhanced™

CVOC REMEDIATION STRATEGY EVALUATION PRS Deployment Units:

Simple Additive Delivery Approach Former Textile Manufacturing Facility,

Hamilton, Ontario Canada

BACKGROUND: Former textile mill with continuous operations from early 1800’s through 1960’s. Past use of the solvent Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) adversely impacted Site groundwater with PCE. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and cis-1, 2-Dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) were also documented in 2010 above Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) Table 3 SCS standards..

BASELINE: PoPCE 43,000 μg/Kg (micrograms per kilogram) in saturated soils proximate to MW-9 and the source zone contaminants. TCE and cis-DCE 1.4 μg/Kg and 0.5 μg/Kg, respectively. PCE in groundwater at MW-9 120,000 μg/Liter with TCE and cis-DCE 700 μg/Kg, and 560 μg/Kg, respectively.

RESULTS: ERDEnhanced™amended groundwater realized:

  • 98% REDUCTION in PCE
  • 95% REDUCTION in TCE
  • 80% REDUCTION in cis-DCE with no rebound and no detectable concentrations of Vinyl chloride (VC)

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TerraStryke TPHEnhanced™

Residual Source Mass Remediation Abandoned Oil-Gas Production Facility –

Petroleum Hydrocarbons, BTEX Legacy Production Water Retention Pond, Colorado

PROCEDURES: Treatment area approximately 80x80ft (6,400 ft2) with estimated 5-foot vertical impact. 26 injection nodes, constructed of 2-inch OD PVC, previously installed using 10-foot centers within the treatment area. Using existing infrastructure, groundwater was amended with TPHEnhanced™ using Passive Release Sock (PRS) deployment units at each node. PRS units are 5-ft long, contains ≈2-pounds of additive, and were deployed twice during 9-month evaluation, March 2017 then May 2017. Two monitoring wells, MW-7 within the treatment area and MW-4 downgradient the treatment area, were periodically monitored/sampled to evaluate product efficacy. Post TPHEnhanced™ deployment observations included solubilization of residual mass and destruction of newly bioavailable dissolved contaminant:.

RESULTS: From peak bioavailability, the following reductions were observed at MW-4:

  • 98% decrease in Benzene after >1,000% increase
  • 83% decrease in Ethylbenzene, after initial 768% increase, and
  • 97% decrease in Xylenes after initial 2,500%+ increase
    Toluene was BDL throughout the evaluation

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TerraStryke TPHEnhanced™

Cost-Effective, Low-Impact Residual Groundwater Remediation Petroleum

Fuel Oil Release; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

BACKGROUND: Manufacturing facility where after removal of an Underground Storage Tank (UST), and adversely impacted soils, residual PHC source mass was documented as light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). Physical recovery decreased LNAPL thickness from 1.3 ft to 0.18 ft over a 3-year period. The regulatory contaminant drivers included Naphthalene and 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (1,2,4-TMB). TPHEnhanced™ was deployed in 2010 via direct push injection in the vicinity of the former UST excavation.

RESULTS: Within 6 months after additive deployment, the following results were observed:

  • Concentrations of Naphthalene decreased by approximately 92%
  • Concentrations of 1,2,4-TMB decreased by approximately 83%
  • Naphthalene decreased from 118 ug/L to 8.8 ug/L
  • 1,2,4-TMB decreased from 97.7 ug/L to 17 ug/L

Post deployment of the biostimulation additive TPHEnhanced™ each of the above contaminants of concern and additionally Benzene and other PHC contaminants have remained within regulatory standards

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TerraStryke ERDEnhanced™

In-Situ Proof-of-Concept & Pilot Study

Former Dry Cleaner: Burlington, Ontario, Canada

Chlorinated Ethene DNAPL Source Zone

BACKGROUND: The site, a former suburban dry cleaner, is the end unit of a strip-mall. Obtained through a bankruptcy, Owner wished to remediate subsurface soil/ groundwater conditions to allow redevelopment/re-occupancy. Less than 4-years after a single ERDEnhanced™ deployment event, moles of PCE and total [cVOCs] decreased >99%↓, the site has been redeveloped, occupied and realized a 200% increase in value; while saving the Owner 10-years and over $500,000 in initial remediation costs.

RESULTS: Based on results of a 2011 on-site Proof-of-Concept study, a voluntary biostimulation program was implemented by the Owner in 2014. Using a subslab infiltration gallery, a 12% additive slurry (4,224 pounds additive to equal parts water) was gravity fed to the subsurface, displacing <7% pore space volume within the amending zone. Baseline [PCE] averaged >15,000 ug/L with minimal daughter products present. 18-months after deployment, concentrations PCE and all daughter products decreased >99% within the amending plume and ≈45ft downgradient the amending gallery; with average reductions in the plume: >96% (PCE), >88% (TCE), >94% (cis-DCE), and 92% (VC).

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TerraStryke TPHEnhanced™

Residual Source Mass Remediation USAF Fire Training Center:

Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Naphthalene, BTEX Former Chanute Air Force Base,

Illinois USA

RESULTS: After TPHEnhanced™ deployment, native microbials enhanced the solubilization of residual source mass contaminants, represented by a greater-than 23-fold increase in dissolved phase total VOC concentrations (from 23.3 ug/L to 556 ug/L MW-6116). Five months later, total VOCs realized ≈ 75% reduction in bioavailable contaminants and >95% additive assimilation. Specifically, VOC concentrations within TPHEnhanced™ amended groundwater realized:

  • A near 30-fold increase in benzene, followed by >71.8% reduction
  • A secondary 6-fold increase in benzene, followed by >74.2% reduction
  • A near 10-fold increase in total VOCs followed by >71.9% reduction
  • A secondary 9-fold increase in total VOCs followed by >74.7% reduction

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bioremediation results case studies

TerraStryke ERDEnhanced™ 

Deep Aquifer cVOC Groundwater Remediation Evaluation Process

Using Simple Additive Delivery Approach; NASA, Stennis Space Center Area D

BACKGROUND: NASA Stennis Space Center, Passive Release Sock (PRS) Pilot Study. Evaluated additive efficacy under actual biogeochemical conditions. Past Site use impacted several groundwater bearing units with Trichloroethylene (TCE). PRS pilot implemented at Area D, amending well MW06-12, screened within the 3rd and deepest TCE impacted water bearing unit. Lab based microcosm evaluation also performed.

PROCESS: MW06-12 amended with ERDEnhanced™ filled PRS units suspended in screened well interval. PRS units replaced 5-times over 14-month study creating ≈3ft AOI. Groundwater monitoring, sampling, analytical testing completed each replacement event. Additive efficacy determined by comparing performance data to baseline.

RESULTS:

  • No Vinyl chloride recorded throughout evaluation
  • Secondary geochemistry provides evidence supportive of biotic dechlorination
  • 99.99% REDUCTION dissolved-phase concentrations TCE within 7-months deployment;
  • 95.7%REDUCTION moles TCE
  • 82.7%REDUCTION moles total-cVOCs, and
  • 82.7%REDUCTION in P:PD Ratio.Download full case study here.

TerraStryke ERDEnhanced™ 

PRS Based Proof-of-Concept Evaluation

Residual DNAPL Source Zone Remediation – Part I

Using Simple Additive Delivery Approach; Ohio Manufacturing Facility

BACKGROUND: Former industrial facility with Trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater at ≈30% solubility, indicating significant DNAPL. TCE is the ‘parent’ cVOC contaminant.

PROCESS: 20-months evaluation; three monitoring wells amended using additive filled Passive Release Sock (PRS) deployment units; fourth, a monitored control. PRS units are suspended in saturated casing volume of test well, remaining 6-8 weeks, then replaced periodically to maintain additive residency time. BioTraps® were deployed in each monitoring well; groundwater monitoring/sampling performed with each replacement. 

RESULTS: 20-months post additive deployment, amended wells averaged 98.5% reduction in parent-parent/daughter ratios with secondary lines of evidence to support additive enhanced reductive dechlorination. Observations include temporal increases in carbon, expedited alternative electron scavenging, and general increases in ethene concentrations at each amended well. At MW-38A, >99.9% reduction in parent [TCE] was realized.

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bioremediation results case studies

TerraStryke ERDEnhanced™ 

Treatability Evaluation, Residual DNAPL Source Zone Remediation – Part II

Direct Injection Additive Delivery Approach; Ohio Manufacturing Facility

BACKGROUND: Former industrial facility with Trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater at ≈30% solubility, indicating significant DNAPL. TCE is the ‘parent’ cVOC contaminant.

PROCESS: Fall 2015 treatability study: 2-injection wells; estimated 35ft AOI. Network of 13 monitoring wells sampled to evaluate additive efficacy through November 2019. Injected 1,040-gallons 12% additive slurry per well, displacing 7.6% pore space volume. Estimated 25,000 c.f. amended zone. Graph below shows results 4-years post injection. 

RESULTS: Injection wells IW-1A/MW-40A realized 88.8% and 99.4% reduction [cVOCs]. Monitoring well MW-43A 40ft downgradient realized >99.9% reduction [TCE]; and, 96.9% reduction in total cVOCs with drop in Parent:Parent-Daughter Ratio (P:PD) from 91.1% to 0.6%. Secondary lines of evidence documented to support additive enhanced reductive dechlorination; including temporal increases in carbon, expedited alternative electron scavenging, and consistent Ethene generation confirming complete cVOC biotransformation. 

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TerraStryke ERDEnhanced™

Treatability Study; Residual DNAPL Source Zone Remediation – Part III

Using Simple Additive Delivery Approach; Ohio Manufacturing Facility

BACKGROUND: Former industrial facility with Trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater at ≈30% solubility, indicating significant DNAPL. TCE is the ‘parent’ cVOC contaminant.

PROCESS: July 2017 treatability study performed within 2012 PRS evaluation zone. Injection well MW-32A (former Control). Three monitoring wells nearby, seven downgradient, all sampled during evaluation process. Injected 2,200-gallons 12% additive slurry, displacing 7.4% pore space volume within estimated 16,000c.f zone. Groundwater monitoring/sampling performed quarterly through November 2019. 

RESULTS: Since July 2017 MW-32A realized 93.3% reduction in [TCE] and 80.1% reduction in [cVOCtotal]. The Parent-parent/daughter ratio (P:PD) decreased by 76.1% with a 72% reduction in total moles cVOCs. Secondary lines of evidence documented to support additive enhanced reductive dechlorination; including, temporal increases in carbon, expedited alternative electron scavenging, and general increases in generation of ethene. 

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bioremediation results case studies
bioremediation results case studies

TerraStryke ERDEnhanced™ 

In-Situ Passive Pilot Study Chlorinated DNAPL Source Zone

Former Dry Cleaner Operations, Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada

BACKGROUND: Former dry cleaner operation, current site use includes dry cleaning store front, retail, offices, and apartments. Past Site use included use/storage of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs); specifically, Tetrachloroethylene (PCE). Past characterization activity documented adverse impacts to subsurface soils and groundwater. Previous remedial efforts proved ineffective and costly. Owner desired a low-cost, low-impact remedial solution that meets compliance and redevelopment objectives.

METHOD: In 2011, the City of Hamilton Ontario sponsored an on-site Pilot Study to evaluate additive efficacy under site biogeochemical conditions. Additive-filled Passive Release Sock (PRS) deployment units were suspended, undisturbed for 6-week periods, in the screened interval of monitoring well MW-9A. PRS units passively amend a limited treatment zone (≤3ft AOI). Five replacement events were completed over a 7-month evaluation period, with baseline and performance groundwater monitoring, sampling, and analytical testing completed during each event. ERDEnhanced™ efficacy determined by comparing performance data to baseline.

RESULTS: Specifically, in total cVOC reductions; after a 275% increase in parent [PCE] due to additive enhanced co-solvent effect, a 76.8%REDUCTION in [cVOCTOTAL] was realized after 8-month evaluation. Additionally, reductions in daughter products include: 76.6% reduction [PCE], 81.8% reduction [TCE], 91.0% reduction [cis-DCE], and 78.8% reduction in [VC]. Furthermore, secondary geochemical metrics recorded during the evaluation provides supportive evidence of amendment enhanced reductive dechlorination.

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TerraStryke TPHEnhanced™ 

In-Situ LNAPL, Petroleum Hydrocarbon Destruction by Indigenous

Microbials via Biostimulation Alone. Simple Additive Delivery Approach;

Legacy Contaminant Site, Seattle WA

BACKGROUND: PHC contaminants as residual mass sorbed to soil with dissolved-phase migration from the USTs into adjacent native soils. Groundwater on- and off-site are adversely impacted by Gasoline Range and Diesel Range Organics (GRO/DRO), both residual and dissolved-phase, extending from 10ft to 30ft bgs. Fluctuating groundwater creating vertical smear zone >10ft; downgradient plume extending >60ft from source area.

RESULTS: Groundwater additive availability peaked as HPC densities and Nitrates (NO3) decreased to below baseline 4-months post injection. Over next 10-months groundwater monitoring recorded additive levels and bulk water microbial densities remained below detection levels (BDL) however, during this same period dissolved-phase concentrations GRO/BTEX decreased by 93.5% and 98.7% from peak bioavailability, respectively.

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bioremediation results case studies
bioremediation results case studies

TerraStryke TPHEnhanced™ 

In-Situ Petroleum Hydrocarbon LNAPL Destruction via Biostimulation Alone.

Proof-of-Concept Evaluation Using Simple Additive Delivery Approach

Former Gas Station, Denver CO

BACKGROUND: Total Volatile Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TVPH) contaminants exceeding regulatory guidelines sorbed to saturated soils with downgradient dissolved-phase migration from former UST excavation area into adjacent on-off-site native soils. Contaminant of Concern (COC) Benzene. Baseline [Benzene] recorded 6.03 mg/L, [TVPH] at 31.6 mg/L, and swimming/planktonic bulk water Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) at 7.6 x 106 cfu/mL. Regulatory agency and Owner seeking low-impact low-cost solution to legacy issue.

RESULTS: Additive was available throughout the 7-month evaluation until PRS deployments ceased 2-weeks prior to evaluation end. Midway through the evaluation [COCs] realized a 69%↓ and 83%↓ reduction in Benzene and TVPH, respectively. During same time HPC densities decreased to BDL. Subsequently, [COCs] continued to trend downward (61%↓ more) while demonstrating periods of solubilization as HPC densities of swimming bacteria returned though remaining 2-3 OM below baseline levels, indicating continued sequestering of non-motile bacteria in the biofilm and the emergence of ‘scouts’ from the biofilm itself.

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TerraStryke TPHEnhanced™ 

Residual Diesel and Oil Range Organics LNAPL Source Zone Remediation

Simple Additive Delivery Approach; Future Retail Development, Seattle WA

SITE: Future condominium development site contaminated with Diesel Range and Oil Range Organics (DRO/ORO) in saturated soils and groundwater at dissolved-phase concentrations indicative of residual Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL).

PROCESS: Six-month evaluation passively deployed solution of TPHEnhanced™ with minimal amounts of a fully encapsulating surfactant blended 1:2 with water. Total volumes used 615-pounds additive, 16-gallons surfactant, with water, gravity fed into RW-2 over three separate deployment events. Specifically, 420-gallons TPHEnhanced™ solution only March 27, 2021, 390-gallons additive solution with 8-gallons surfactant May 2021, and 420-gallons additive solution with 8-gallons surfactant June 2021. The Area-of-Influence was assumed to extend approximately 15-20ft about RW-2. Additive performance monitored from groundwater samples collected monthly from RW-2 and a network of 6 monitoring wells to include one upgradient well.

RESULTS: TPHEnhanced™ amended RW-2 realized no change in [DRO]/[ORO] after the first deployment; however, Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) increased from 40 colonies per Litre to 2.8 x 105 to attain assumed quorum densities. Less than one month later the planktonic densities plummeted to BDL. Concurrently, [DRO] and [Oil-TPH] increase three-fold to 300 mg/L and 400 mg/L; an assumed ‘rebound’ of sorbed contaminant mass to the groundwater as microbial densities and associated performance rates apparently fail. What then happens demonstrates the behaviour expected because of Bioremediation 4.0. Shortly after the second deployment of additive solution is performed in May, as planktonic densities remain BDL, concentrations of [DRO] decrease 97.3% to 8.1 mg/L and [Oil-TPH] decreases >99.99% to BDL. Only after dissolved-phase concentrations of site contaminants (available protons) decrease to 1-2% baseline levels, densities of planktonic bacteria return to levels 3 orders-of-magnitude greater than reported when assumed quorum densities were achieved immediately prior to peak contaminant (proton) destruction/utilization levels or, 8.0 x 104 colonies per Litre.

Secondary geochemical parameters including dissolved-phase Manganese and Iron, Sulphate and Oxygen reduction Potential (ORP) data supports changes due to enhanced biological activity stimulated by the additive-solution cocktail.

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bioremediation results case studies